Senin, 18 April 2011

Definition of administration

Definition of administration
Robbins (1980)
Administration is the universal process of efficiently getting activities completed with and trough other people
Its concepts are transferable between organizations and as applicable to non profit organization and as applicable to non profit organization as they are to profit sector
Its concepts lends support to there commonalities for any comprehensive definition of administration. These are goal, limited resources and people
1.       Goal are necessary because activity must be directed toward some end.
2.       There must be limited resources. Economic resources by definition, are scarce; therefore, the administrator is responsible for their allocation. Administrators then are concerned with the attainment of goal ( effectiveness ) and with the best allocation of scarce resource( efficiency )
3.       The need for two or more people. Its with and trough people that administrators perform their work.

Who are administrator
Ø  The form administrator is used to describe a number of different jobs. The term applies to those with formal decision making authority from the person in the top organization down to the lowest level supervisor
Ø  Example: ??

Administration as a philosophy
Ø  Definition of philosophy are an attitude toward certain activities
Ø  All administrators have a philosophy: that is a value system guides the way that administrator deal with organizational problems.
Ø  Example, the belief that organization should seek growth, efficiency, strong, forceful leaders, etc.
Ø  Individuals value system is determined by cultural norms and education and experience that he or she has been exposed to.



Is administration an art or science?
Indicators of administration as a science are:
Ø  A fundamental or universal truth
Ø  Explaining, predicting analyze, and measure phenomena
Ø  Administration can be studied trough the scientific method data gathered and hypothesized.
In contrast, administration is an art, a fact that need reflect negatively on the discipline. In reality, there are few pure sciences. Koontz clearly delineates administrations position when be describes it as an art, but so are engineering, medicine, accounting, and baseball. For art is the applications of knowledge to reality with compromise, blend or design to get the best total result :

Administration should be recognized as both a science and an art.

Public administration
Public administration areas have been of three major types
1.       The general governmental area.
2.       The special or limited purpose governmental area.
3.       The field service area.
The general governmental areas
Ø  The general governmental areas serve the governments of the nation, states, countries, cities, village, and other corporate places, etc
Ø  Examples in Indonesia ; departemen – departemen pemerintah dan institusi-institusi di bawahnya yang mengatur urusan – urusan pemerintahan yang bersifat nasional dan regional

The special governmental areas
Ø  The special governmental areas are illustrated by school districts, road and bridge districts, drainage, irrigation, conservation, health, housing authorities, etc.

Development of management theory

Periode 1: pre scientific management ( 1880 )
Periode 2: classical management ( 1880-1930)

Srientificc management theory                                                           classical organizational theory

Periode 3                                             Behavioral management ( 1930- 1950)

Management science                                                                                    system approach
( operation research )
Contingency management
( 1950 to present )

Pre scientific management
The model for organization prevailed through the greek and roman empires, the holy roman empires,  the feudal system of the medieval period, the renaissance and until the early eighteenth century.
Management science
Ø  Management science or opration research
Ø  It is an approach often used for problem solving
Ø  A team or specialist analyses a problem and proposes a course of action to management.
Ø  Mathematicalmodels and computers are frequently used in the analysis of the problem
Ø  The result of the analisis are use full for planning and controlling but have limited application to issues directly concerning people.

The system approach
In the system approach to management, the organization is seen as a unfied system made up of many interrelated parts.

Rounded Rectangle: Input               processes  output outcome

Environment   feedback   environment
What is system?

Another pioneer was Charles babbage ( 1792–1871 ) an English professor of mathematics, who studied factory efficiency.
He advocated division of labour

Scientific management theory
Attention was focused on how resources could be effectively

Services manager were concerned were concerned with efficiency and maximation of output the pioneer:
1.       Frederick W. taylor

Taylor’s contribution:
The four main principles
Ø  All jobs can be observed and analyzed in order to determine the best way of acomplising them.
Ø  The best for the job can be scientifically selected and trained.
Ø  You can ensure that the one best way is followed by training people and paying them on an incentive basis, trying wages to production
Ø  Put a manager in charge of planning, preparing and spekting work

The pioneer:
2.       Henry gantt ( 1861-1919 )
He worked with taylor before working alone as a consulting industrial engineer and is best known for devising a charting system for production scheduling and control this system called the “gantt chart” is still use today.
3.       Frank and cilian gilbert ( 1868-1924, 1878-1942 ) made             to scientific management theory in areas of
Taylor and his followers concentration
Classical organizational theory
Classical organizational theory focuses a attention on finding guide lines for the management of complex organizations
The pioneer:
1.       Henri fayol ( 1841-1925 ) a French industrialist. He analyzed management from a top level. Perspective  and believed that sound managerial practice fell into certain indetifiable patterns
Two major contribution:
1.       He indentified five
2.       Max weber, contructed  a model of organization structure that would be both rational and efficient for large organizations. The term he chose for this model was bureaucracy.
The basis of weber’s “bureaucracy” was:
Ø  An elaborate division of labour
Ø  Selection and promotion on the basis of merit to meet prescribed position specifications.
Ø  Set salaries and benefits
Ø  Asset hierarchy of jobs an offices
Ø  Obedience toauthority vested inspesification position.
Ø  A clear channel of command.
Ø  Formal, impersonal rules discipline

Behavioral management theory
(neo classical management theory)
BMT draw on the fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology in order to better understand, human behavior in a work environment.

Human relation                                                                                                                 human behavior
Relationship                                                                                                                       approach

The pioneer:
  1. Elton mayo ( 1880-1949 ) an Australian based in united states made important discoveries about workers behavior at the haw thorne plant of western electric
His research, from 1927 to 1932, showed that when special attention is given to workers by management , productivity is likely to increase, regardless of any changes in working conditions. This phenomenon later became known as the “haw thorn effect”
A result of mayo’s finding was that more attention was directed toward teaching  “people  management skills as opposed to technical skills.
  1. Douglas mc gregor ( 1901-1964 ) a management writer and theoriest, the classically structured organization ( with is centralized authority specialized jobs, close supervision of employees , ets) was a reflection of classical writer’s assumptions human nature, mc gregor called these assumptions:
Theory x 
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